Post a response to the following question in the discussion forum, and respond to one of your classmate’s postings for this question. Your initial response and responses to others should be at least 150 words. Respond to your classmate’s requests for feedback. In addition, follow the guidelines provided in the Grading Rubric for Online Discussions-500 Level.Please use the link.Beth Rodgers first published her evolutionary method for concept analysis in 1989. According to Rodgers, concept analysis is necessary because concepts are dynamic, “fuzzy”, and context dependent, and possess some pragmatic utility purpose. Because phenomena, needs, and goals change, concepts must be continually refined and variations introduced to achieve a clearer and more useful meaning.
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Rodgers examined two viewpoints or schools of thought regarding concept development, and showed that the methods of each differ significantly. Rodgers termed these methods “essentialism” and “evolutionary” viewpoints. In her work, she contrasted the essentialist method of concept development as exemplified by Wilson and Walker and Avant with concept development using the evolutionary method.
The evolutionary method of concept development is a concurrent task approach. In it, the tasks may be occurring simultaneously, rather than a sequence of specific steps that are completed before going to the next step. There are several activities involved in the evolutionary method of concept development.
Primary Activities in Rodger’s Process of Concept Analysis:
Identify the concept and associated terms.
Select an appropriate realm (a setting or a sample) for data collection.
Collect data to identify the attributes of the concept and the contextual basis of the concept (i.e. interdisciplinary, sociocultural, and temporal variations).
Analyze the data regarding the characteristics of the concept.
Identify the exemplar of the concept, if appropriate.
Identify hypotheses and implications for further development.
Rodgers defined many terms and explained the process of concept analysis using the evolutionary view. The goal of the concept analysis, to an extent, is to determine how the researcher identifies the concept of interest, terms, and expressions selected.
The goal of the analysis also influences selection of the setting and sample for data collection. For instance, the setting may be a library and the sample might be literature. The sampling might be time-oriented, such as literature from the previous five years. Whatever the case may be, the researcher’s goal is to develop a rigorous design consistent with the purpose of the analysis. The selection of literature from related disciplines may include those that typically use the concept. An exhaustive review includes all the indexed literature using the concept, and may be limited by a time frame, such as several years.
A sample across each discipline over time is obtained by employing a randomized process. In collecting and managing data, a discovery approach is preferred. The focus of the data analysis is on identifying the attributes, antecedents, and consequences and related concepts or surrogate terms. The attributes located by this means constitute a “real definition as opposed to a nominal or dictionary definition” (Rogers, 2006, p. 92).
Rodgers defines surrogate terms as ways of expressing the concept other than by the term of interest. She distinguishes between surrogate terms and related concepts by illustrating the surrogate terms are different words that express the concept, whereas “related concepts are part of a network that provide a background” and “lend significance to the concept of interest” (Rodgers, 2006, p. 92).
Identifying an exemplar from the literature, field observation, or interview provides a clear example of the concept. Examples of real cases are preferred over constructed cases. The goal is to illustrate the characteristics of the concept in relevant contexts to enhance the clarity and effective application of the concept.
Interpreting the results involves gaining insight on the current status of the concept and generating implications for inquiry based on this status and identified gaps. Interpreting the results may involve interdisciplinary comparison, temporal comparison, and assessment of the social context within which the concept analysis was conducted.
Identifying implications for further development and formal inquiry may be the result. The results of the analysis may direct further inquiry rather than giving the final answer on the meaning of the concept. The implications of this form of research-based concept analysis may yield questions for future research, or hypotheses may be extracted from the findings. The major outcome of the evolutionary method of concept analysis is the generation of questions for further research rather than the static definition of the concept.
2. Concept Analysis Exemplar
The following is an outline delineating the steps of a concept analysis using Rodger’s Evolutionary Method:
A. Identify the concept and associated terms.
Concept: Chronic pain (non-cancerous pain in adults)
Associated terms: Chronic pain, persistent pain, intractable pain, and continuous pain.
B. Select an appropriate realm (setting) for data collection.
The realm for this study was nursing, psychology, and neurophysiology professional journal publications between the years 1979 and 2009. Included were case studies, qualitative and quantitative studies, review articles, and meta-analyses.
C. Identify the attributes of the concept and the contextual basis of the concept.
Attributes of chronic pain: their primary dimensions (physical, behavioral, and psychological).
Physical dimension is characterized by quantity, intensity (Level or severity), neurological transmission, and anatomic patterns of chronic pain.
Behavioral dimension is characterized by expressive, movement, and functional behaviors.
Psychological dimension is characterized by affective an evaluative components.
D. Specify the characteristics of the concept.
Characteristics of chronic pain include:
Relative language (i.e. “ache”) and modifiers (i.e. “annoying” or “dull”).
Behaviors– expressive behaviors (moaning and use of pain words); movement behaviors (grimacing, massaging, protective movements, rhythmic movements); functional behaviors (use of socially defined sick role behaviors such as decreased mobility, inactivity, and bed rest)
Time dimension- include onset and frequency or rhythm of pain episodes
Antecedents- No specific physical or psychological characteristics were noted that were antecedents or chronic pain. Although trauma sometimes precedes chronic pain, trauma is not necessary or sufficient to cause chronic pain. Chronic pain may be related to alterations in the production and regulation of cortisol, serotonin, and endogenous opioids and in the synthesis and release of sensory neuropeptides.
Consequences- Two themes: living with chronic pain results in alterations of psychological life patterns including depression, anger, anxiety, grief, hopelessness and helplessness; social pattern alterations may result in isolation and loneliness; there may be loss of work, and consequently, loss of insurance and money to pay for medical expenses; and coping with chronic pain– effective coping- decreases the adverse effects of chronic pain by reducing stress and thereby reducing pain intensity. Strategies include distraction, meditation, positive thinking, counseling, and use of alternative treatments (i.e. acupuncture, massage, herbal medications, meditation and imagery).
E. Identify an exemplar of the concept.
Chronic pain is a subjective, multidimensional, bio/psycho/social syndrome that can be recognized by physical, psychological, and behavioral patterns. Chronic pain results in physical, psychological, and social alternatives of function to varying degrees. There is no known purpose and there is no single explanation of the symptoms.
F. Identify hypotheses and implications for development.
Research is needed to understand the relationship between intensity, quality and duration of pain and central nervous system function.
Research is needed to explore body-brain-mind interactions in the development, persistence, and consequences of chronic pain.
Research is needed to identify the subjective symptoms that may differentiate chronic pain from acute pain. If early symptoms can be identified, studies can be conducted to determine interventions that may stop the development of chronic pain (Breen, 2000, pp. 24, 48-59).