reply to discussions

DISCUSSION 1
The type of communication within an organization can be seen as dependent on what is being communicated and whom the communications is between.  The decision to use formal or informal communication is normally dictated by the position of the communicators.  Formal communication has three types, which are downward, upward and horizontal.  Downward communication “takes place when organizational leaders communicate down the power hierarchy to subordinate organizational members” (Kreps, 2011).  An example of this communication can be seen when our organizations commanding officer communicates his decision that we will be working over a weekend in order to catch up on training.  Horizontal communication “refers to messages that are shared between organization members who are on similar levels” (Kreps, 2011).  An example of this is when I have to conduct a meeting with other members of my unit of the same rank or position to further discuss the need for working the weekend.  Upward communication happens when information is directed from the bottom up or directed “up the power hierarchy” (Kreps, 2011).  An example of this type is when subordinate voice concern or bring up alternative ideas for not working over the weekend.

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Informal communications “are based on personal relationships that may transcend the formal hierarchy” (Kreps, 2011).  This type of communication may enable more open or direct communication that occurs between friends.  Within some organizations, this type of communication may be encouraged as a means to provide individuals a way to brainstorm ideas, which have, can help in creative type environments.  In my organization, this type of communication tends to occur only between individuals whom are equal in rank due to the rules and laws that govern military members.  An example of informal communication in my organization would be the rumor mill or grapevine type communication.  Because of an open bay working environment phone communications can be heard which sometimes prove to be rather interesting.  However, if rumors get out of hand or become distracting we will talk to all members involved to put an end to it.
The type of communication I prefer in a work environment would be formal horizontal communication because I feel it provides the greatest freedom of ideas while still maintaining structure and respect.  Communication among my peers means we are not simple getting information or giving it out.  We are able to discuss the information, develop ideas that may work better or organize thoughts of how to best communicate the information does the chain in a way that ensures the greatest success.
Reference:
Kreps, G.L. (2011).  Communication in Organizations [Electronic version]. Retrieved from: https://content.ashford.edu (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

DISCUSSION 2

Good afternoon class,
In my current work center, we encounter both formal and informal channels of communication on a regular basis. According to Gary L. Kreps (2011), “Formal patterns of organizational communication follow the power hierarchy within organizations, whereas informal patterns of organizational communication do not necessarily
follow along power hierarchy lines.”  On a daily basis, I use both to accomplish my mission as a manager providing guidance to work centers worldwide as well as staying in tune with the grapevine to make sure I’m prepared for my boss’ next tasker.
An example of formal communication I used recently formal communication to deliberately improve a graduation process with my team. I used downward, upward, and horizontal communication techniques to accomplish my task. My downward communication came through my role as manager by informing team we would be modifying the graduation process.  As educators, we were responsible for ensuring our students who had put in the necessary effort to pass the course left with a feeling of accomplishment and pride. My upward communication came from listening to the team first. Unless mandated, I prefer allowing the team to provide input and design the change(s) their self as long as it meets the end goal and any associated timelines. Finally, my horizontal communication tactic was most noticeable once I notified the team of the task, and gave time for them to brainstorm. After a period of time, I joined the conversation to link ideas, provide additional guidance, and narrow the list of cans and can nots. One of the most important aspects in business is effective communication throughout the process while maintaining a steady flow so as not to have a negative impact on probability and competitiveness (Maull, 2018).
An example of informal conversation I recently had was with my office technology specialist. I recently moved into a new work center, and because of the transition process I did not have access to a computer or phone. As a gatekeeper, the technology specialist wielded the power to get me a computer and phone right away. Her chain of command is not connected to mine at all; however, because we work in the same office I went to her to ask how I could speed up the process. She provided the necessary contacts and documentation I needed to fill out, and because she was the subject matter expert I had zero errors when I submitted. In fact, I got my computer in two days, whereas the majority of requests take an average of 5-7 business days. I thanked her for the assistance, and now that we have struck up a friendship we consult each other when working through issues that impact the other rather than waiting on the formal lines of communication to interject. This has led to a higher level of organizational synergy, of which we both agree it is important to share with others. Furthermore, this has also led both of us to be seen as opinion leaders by our peers. Our friendship has merged with our professional lives and now we are using it to raise our organizational synergy. 
I prefer informal communication. Approximately 70% of communication comes through the grapevine (Goman, 2013). Chief executive officers, executive officers, and other high ranked organizational officials tend to rely on formal communication because of their position and responsibilities. They often do not have the time, unless scheduled, to interact with the lower level work centers. However, the low level and mid-level managers may use informal communication for crossflow communication or eliminate miscommunication before it is highlighted to upper management. I would prefer to maintain a career at the mid-level management where I can put out fires before they’re even seen.
References
Goman, C. K. (2013, December 01). What Leaders Don’t Know About The Rumor Mill. Retrieved June 20, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/carolkinseygoman/2013/11/30/what-leaders-dont-know-about-the-rumor-mill/#5148c4417b74 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Kreps, G.L. (2011). Communication in organizations. San Diego, CA
Maull, F. (2018, January 03). Four Vital Skills For Students Entering The Business World. Retrieved June 20, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescoachescouncil/2018/01/03/four-vital-skills-for-students-entering-the-business-world/#2312c5baaf66

DICUSSION 3
After reading about the four principles of communication which are communication is a process, communication is irreversible, communication is transactional, and communication includes both content and relationship dimensions.  The principle I found most interesting and the one that applied best to me is “communication is irreversible.”  To me this means that once something is said it cannot be undone.  You can further explain what you actual meant or even apologize for sending the wrong message, but the original message can never be reversed.  Because technology has enabled instant communications through smart devices, I have found that I tend to communicate with the wrong person more often that I would like.  For example, I communicate for work and in my personal life using my cell phone.  As I tend to be involved with many issues and decisions at work, I have multiple conversations occurring simultaneously.  The multiple conversations have resulted on more than one occasion with me sending the wrong information to individuals as I think I am communicating on a different text stream.  Luckily, I have never sent anything overly inappropriate or provided key information to the wrong person.  This miscommunication normally happened with my peers as we discuss things throughout the day while in various locations.
This principle can help us understand organization communication by means of the importance to communicate exactly what is needed and with the correct person.  I f problems with this principle occur, information could be compromised, business relationships could be damaged, and employment could be threatened.  “This is why it is important to be judicious about what we communicate to others.  The messages we send influence future communication as well as the nature of our relationships with others” (Kreps, 2011).
Reference:
Kreps, G.L. (2011). Communication in Organizations [Electronic version]. Retrieved from: https://content.ashford.edu (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

DISCUSSION 4
One principle of communication that I would like to discuss is that communication is irreversible. This means that once you say something, good or bad, that’s it. Once the person on the other end hears it, there is no taking it back (Kreps, 2011). First off, make sure that you are not in a rush when trying to communicate as something may get missed or you say something that you were not supposed to. Even if it is as simple as making coffee. My wife and I have recently when back to drip coffee. The Kuerig coffee pods were just getting to expensive for the good stuff and we are drinking more coffee than usual do to our busy lives. Mind you we have not had a drip coffee maker for over 10 years. I had explained to my wife how to do the process of putting in the paper filter and then the ground coffee. However, I did not mention how much of the ground coffee was needed. Needless to say she only put in about as much coffee as a Kuerig pod holds and then let 8 cups of water go through it. This made for some really weak coffee. It was water with a very light brown tint! However, there was no taking back what I said because I did not specify how much ground coffee to put in the filter. Under standing this principle is vital to making sure that what you are communicating is clearly thought out and understood.        
References:
Kreps, G. L. (2011). Communication in organizations [Electronic version]. Retrieved from      https://content.ashford.edu