Heart failure is a clinical condition that occurs when there is a structural or functional dysfunction that interferes with the ability of the ventricle to fill in on pump-out blood. Left ventricular heart failure is when there is a dysfunction in the left ventricle. A myocardial infarction occurs when there is damage to the heart muscles (myocardium) as a result of obstructed blood flow (Cahill & Kharbanda, 2017). When these muscles lack oxygen, there is cardiomyocyte structural changes and edema and this injury activates the inflammatory cascade. About 3 days after the MI, there is tissue repair with progressive scar formation. The renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems are then activated as compensation mechanisms and this results in changes to the ventricular structure (Cahill & Kharbanda, 2017). The severity of LV failure may increase with prolonged hypertension, myocarditis, and heart muscle damage from infections, disease, and toxic drug use.
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Manifestations and Management of DVT
Deep vein thrombosis involves blood clots in the veins in the legs, thighs, pelvis, or arms. Symptoms include pain, swelling, tenderness, and skin redness. Medical management of the condition involves anticoagulation therapy mainly involving oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or warfarin (CDC, 2020). However, patients with cancer, as well as pregnant patients, can be treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Prevention may also include the use of compression stockings which could also relieve pain and swelling. Severe cases of DVT may warrant a surgical removal of the clot
According to the video, DVT can happen to anyone but the risk increases after a recent surgery, recent serious injuries such as fractures, when one is sitting down or lying for low periods, and having active cancer (CDC, 2020). DVT could cause pulmonary embolism when bits of the blood clot breaks off and find their way to the lungs. When recognized early, both DVT and PE can be successfully treated.